Magic Symbols and Runes
The Icelandic magical staves or symbols featured here were preserved in various Icelandic grimoires dating from the 1600's and later, and were believed to call forth good effects.
In Viking times the Elder Fuþark runes were used for magical purposes and prediction as well, but were also used as a means of writing before later writing systems were used in Northern Europe. The names and short meanings of the runes are given in their proto-Germanic form, English and Icelandic on their individual packaging.
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